Medical Education Glossary
Before medical school
This term refers to the 4 years of undergraduate study required to get a bachelor’s degree, held by essentially all applicants to medical school.
Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT)
A standardized multiple-choice test of problem solving, critical thinking, and knowledge of natural, behavioral, and social science concepts and principles prerequisite to the study of medicine. MCAT scores are submitted as part of the application to medical school.
As a medical student
Undergraduate medical education
This term refers to the four years of training in medical school. Despite being a college graduate, the medical student is an “undergraduate” in terms of completing the work needed for a medical degree.
Basic medical education
This first phase of medical education takes up the first two years of medical school. During this time, students study the basic sciences of medicine, learn and practice basic clinical skills—such as taking patient histories and performing physical examinations—and learn about professionalism and ethics. Faculty teaching courses may be clinicians with MDs or researchers with PhDs, depending upon the subject matter.
United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)
A three-part national test that tests students’ fundamental knowledge in the medical sciences. The first part of the test is taken at the end of the second year of medical school. Students take the second part of the test at the end of their third year of medical school. The final part is taken at the end of the first year of residency training. Passage of all three parts of the test is one of the requirements for obtaining a license to practice medicine.
An experiential learning process that lets third- and fourth-year medical students experience all the key fields of medicine. During this time, students—or clinical clerks—work in hospital wards or clinics as junior members of the medical team, closely supervised by practicing physicians or residents.
They begin to diagnose and treat patients, expanding the basic science knowledge and clinical skills learned during the first two years. They improve their history and physical examination skills, write orders on charts, advance their diagnostic skills, write progress notes, present patients verbally to their medical team and faculty, discuss cases with patient’s families, and do procedures.
One of the several types of elective rotations medical students can do in their fourth year of study (the subinternship is another). Students who take part in a consultative elective respond to consultation requests sent to a subspecialty service by physicians. They are the first to evaluate their patients and present their findings and impressions to the subspecialty attending physician or fellow before giving that information to the original requesting physician.
One of two types of elective rotations medical students can do in their fourth year of study (the consultative elective is the other). The subinternship involves students acting as interns. They work on the wards, as they did in their third year, but with added responsibilities. Students work more directly under the supervision of a more senior-level physician than before and are given more leeway in decision-making and charting.
A course that a medical student chooses from a subset of courses predefined by the College.
A course that a medical student chooses from the full menu of courses offered by the College, not from a predefined subset.
After earning a medical degree
Graduate medical education
The training completed after obtaining a medical degree. This may refer to residency training or fellowship training.
National Residency Matching Program (NRMP)
Made up of key academic medical oversight agencies and medical student associations, this organization handles the residency application process. Students apply during the first part of their fourth year through a process that is similar to that of applying to medical school. They send in an application form, a personal statement, letters of recommendation, and USMLE test scores to their preferred residency programs and go through a round of interviews. Both students and residency programs submit a ranking list, and students are matched with the highest-ranked residency program that has also listed them as desirable and acceptable.
To be completed after obtaining a medical degree, residency training provides medical school graduates with the additional hands-on experience they need to become a more-seasoned doctor. It lasts three to seven years depending on the chosen field of medicine. As residents proceed through training, they assume more independence and more supervisory responsibility in the training of more junior residents and medical students. Completion of the adequate time in residency training is one of the requirements to obtain a license to practice medicine. For most states, the minimum required residency training is two years, but a few require completion of just one year of residency training.
A term used to describe the first year of residency training. Similarly, first-year residents are sometimes referred to as interns. A resident in the first year of training may also be identified as either a PGY-1 (postgraduate year one) or an R-1 (Resident-1).
Additional subspecialty training that is required for some fields of medicine and is completed after residency training. Fellowship training adds another two to three years to the process. It is similar to residency training, but with an added emphasis on conducting research.
As a practicing physician
A physician who has passed a national examination administered by a specialty board, allowing him or her to become certified in a particular field or subspecialty. Most branches of medicine require board-certified physicians to undergo recertifying examinations every 10 years.
Continuing Medical Education
Required education physicians must complete after their residency and/or fellowship to maintain their licenses. These education requirements ensure that physicians remain current in their fields.