Thomas Heston, MD FAAFP FACNM

  1. Associate Professor

View Google Scholar Profile


  • Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Molecular Imaging Fellowship
  • University of Nicosia, MS in Blockchain and Digital Currency
  • University of Washington School of Medicine, Family Medicine Residency
  • Oregon Health and Science University, Nuclear Medicine Residency, Chief Resident
  • Duke University School of Medicine, Family Medicine Internship
  • Saint Louis University School of Medicine, MD
  • University of the State of New York – Albany, BS, Liberal Arts
  • University of Washington, BA, Music



  • Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Molecular Imaging Fellowship
  • University of Nicosia, MS in Blockchain and Digital Currency
  • University of Washington School of Medicine, Family Medicine Residency
  • Oregon Health and Science University, Nuclear Medicine Residency, Chief Resident
  • Duke University School of Medicine, Family Medicine Internship
  • Saint Louis University School of Medicine, MD
  • University of the State of New York – Albany, BS, Liberal Arts
  • University of Washington, BA, Music


  • Assistant Professor (Adjunct), Johns Hopkins University, Department of Radiology, 2010 – 2014
  • Clinical Instructor, University of Washington School of Medicine, Family Medicine, 2015 – 


Current projects include defining fragility in biostatistics, healthcare applications of blockchain technology, and artificial intelligence.

Honors & Awards

  • Fellow, American College of Nuclear Medicine, 2007
  • Fellow, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, 2006
  • Fellow, American Academy of Family Physicians, 1998




Heston, Thomas F. (2024). A blockchain AI solution to climate change. International Journal of Science and Research Archive, 2024, 11(02), 450–454. 

Heston, Thomas F. (2024). Foundations of scholarly writing.  In: Erokhin V, editor. An Overview on Business, Management and Economics Research Volume 8. London (UK): B P International; 2024 Jan 19. p. 113-154. 

Heston, Thomas F. (2024). Quantifying uncertainty: potential medical applications of the Heston model of financial stochastic volatility.  In: Qassim RY, editor. Contemporary Perspective on Science, Technology and Research Volume 3. London (UK): B P International; 2024 Jan 1. p. 92-103. 

Heston, Thomas F. (2024). Two Left Shoes. Journal of Artificial Intelligence General Science (JAIGS) ISSN:3006-4023, 2(1). 


Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Assessing illness and recovery with the clean plate sign. Zenodo.

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Big tobacco, cigarettes and the foundation of Duke University. Journal of Clinical Medical Research, 4(3), 1-4. 

Heston, Thomas F. & Jiang, John Y. (2023). Concordance of chest x-ray with chest CT by body mass index. PeerJ 2023 Mar 16;11:e15090. 

Heston, Thomas F. (October 13, 2023). The cost of living index as a primary driver of homelessness in the United States: a cross-state analysis. Cureus 15(10): e46975. 

Heston, Thomas F. & Dullea, A. (2023). Distributed research networks. In: Stawicki, S. (ed.) Blockchain in Healthcare. Integrated Science, vol 10. Springer, Cham.

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Gamifying exercise in the elderly. Journal of Clinical Medical Research, 4(2), 1–3.

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Optimizing job design to improve healthcare employee satisfaction and patient care., 2023 Aug 23.

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Prompt engineering for students of medicine and their teachers. Las Vegas: LLC.

Heston, Thomas F., Khun, Charya. (2023). Prompt engineering in medical education. Int. Med. Educ. 2023, 2(3), 198-205. 

Heston, Thomas F. (December 18, 2023). Safety of large language models in addressing depression. Cureus 15(12): e50729. doi:10.7759/cureus.50729

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Selecting the safest public bathroom stall in the era of Covid-19. Jour Clin Med Res. 2023;4(2):1-4. 

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Statistical Ethics in Medical Research: A Narrative Review. Jour Clin Med Res. 2023;4(3):1-10. 

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Statistical Fragility in Surveys. Academic Medicine 2023 Dec 7. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000005584 

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Statistical Significance Versus Clinical Relevance: A Head-to-Head Comparison of the Fragility Index and Relative Risk Index. Cureus, Oct 26;15(10):e47741. doi: 10.7759/cureus.47741

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). The Beholder – A Symphony of Life in Medicine. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2023;12(12):1-2. 

Heston, Thomas F., & Khun, Charya. (2023). The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Chat GPT in Medical Education. International Journal of Current Research, 15(8), 25496–25499. 

Heston, Thomas F. The Ochlocratic Trap in Bioethics. Jour Clin Med Res. 2023;4(3):1-5. 

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). The Percent Fragility Index. International Journal of Scientific Research, 12(7), 9–10.

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). To Mask or Not to Mask Correctly: An Empirical Look at Public Masking Behavior. Jour Clin Med Res. 2023;4(2):1-3.

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). We Thank You Lord. International Journal of Current Research, 15(8), 25668-25671. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2022). Find the Joy: an Ode to Healing in F Major. Zenodo.


Heston, Thomas F., Ray S. (eds.) (2021). Bioethics in Medicine and Society. London: InTechOpen.  

Heston, Thomas F. (ed) (2021). Topics in Primary Care Medicine. London: InTechOpen. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2020). How Skateboarders Can Save the World From COVID-19. Medium. doi: 

Heston, Thomas F. (2020). Introductory Chapter: Blockchain Technology and Smart Healthcare. In: Smart Healthcare (pp. 1-4). London: InTechOpen. 

Heston, Thomas F. (ed) (2020). Smart Healthcare. London: InTechOpen. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2019). Fragile Data Requires High Statistical Caution.

Heston, Thomas F. (2019). Introductory Chapter: Telemedicine. In: Telehealth (pp. 3-5). London: InTechOpen. 

Heston, Thomas F., & Pahang, Joshuel A. (2019). Moral injury and the four pillars of bioethics. F1000research, 8, 1193. 

Heston, Thomas F. (ed) (2019). Telehealth. London: IntechOpen. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2018). A Blockchain Solution to Gun Control. International Journal of Scientific Research, 3(7), 81–83.

Heston, Thomas F. (ed.) (2018). eHealth – Making Health Care Smarter. London: InTechOpen (London). 

Heston, Thomas F. (2018). Introductory Chapter: Making Health Care Smart. In eHealth – Making Health Care Smarter (pp. 1–7). London: InTechOpen. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2017). A Case Study in Blockchain Health Care Innovation. Int J Curr Res. 2017;9(11): 60587–60588. DOI: 

Heston TF, Olson AH, Randall NR. Canagliflozin lowers blood sugar, but does it also lower cardiovascular risk? Maybe not. Ann Transl Med. 2017;5(23):473.

Heston, Thomas F. , King, Jackson M. (2017). Predictive power of statistical significance. World J Methodol. 2017 Dec 26;7(4):112-116. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v7.i4.112

Heston, Thomas F. (2017). Sauna Bathing and the Cardiovascular System. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2017;6(11), 569–570.


Heston, Thomas F. (2014). Standardized Predictive Values. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 39(5), 1338.

Heston, Thomas F. (2014). What's Inside. Zenodo.


Heston, Thomas F. (2013). Commentary on “Effect of Patients' Awareness of CVD Risk Factors on Health-Related Behaviors”. Southern Medical Journal, 106(11), 610–611. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2012). Letter by Heston Regarding Article, “Comparative Effectiveness of Exercise Electrocardiography With or Without Myocardial Perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography in Women With Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Results From the What Is the Optimal Method for Ischemia Evaluation in Women (WOMEN) Trial.” Circulation 2012;125(19):e933 


Heston, Thomas F. (2011). Standardizing predictive values in diagnostic imaging research. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011;33(2):505. 


Heston, Thomas F.  (2010). 123I-MIBG Versus 18F-FDG: Which Is Better, or Which Can Be Eliminated? Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 2010;51(2):330. 

Heston, Thomas F., & Gosselin, Marc. (2010). Medical Mythology: Its Etiology, Prevention and Treatment. Webmedcentral General Medicine. 2010;1(9).

Heston TF, Wahl RL. (2010). Molecular imaging in thyroid cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2010;10(1):1-7.

Goldsmith SJ, Parsons W, Guiberteau MJ, Stern LH, Lanzkowsky L, Weigert J, Heston TF, Jones E, Buscombe J, Stabin MG and Society of Nuclear Medicine. SNM practice guideline for breast scintigraphy with breast-specific gamma-cameras 1.0.  J Nucl Med Technol. 2010 Dec;38(4):219-24. doi: PMID: 21057112.


Heston TF, Wahl R, Jacene H (2009). A systematic approach to PET/CT interpretation and reporting in oncology. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 50(Supplement 2), 1089. 

Heston TF, Wahl RL (2009). Clinical Significance of Iodine-123 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Cardiac Imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54(6):575-576. 

Heston T, Merrill J, Bengel F, Wahl R. Coronary calcium scores in patients with normal myocardial perfusion. J Nuclear Med. 2009;50(supplement 2):1160.

Heston TF (2009). Detection of myocardial infarction by CT angiography. Heart 2009;95:1108. 

Heston TF, Cheng A. (2009). Electrocardiographic Markers of Cardioversion Success in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation or Flutter. Southern Medical Journal. 2009;102:877-878.  

Heston, Thomas F.,  & Szabo, Z. (2009). Giant cell arteritis on 18F‐FDG PET/CT. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 29(5), 382–384. 

Heston, Thomas F., Wahl, Richard L. (2009). How often are statistically significant results clinically relevant? Not often. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 50, no. supplement 2 (2009): 1370–1370. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2007). Pharmacologic stress testing. Southern Medical Journal. 2007;100(10), 969–970.


Heston, Thomas F. (2005). Anginal symptoms are not predictive of myocardial perfusion or function in diabetics. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology. 2005;12(4):S108. doi:  


Baur DA, Heston TF, Helman JI (2004). Nuclear medicine in oral and maxillofacial diagnosis: a review for the practicing dental professional. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 5(1), 1–7. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2001). Self-Assessment in Family Practice: Hypertension Review Questions. Hospital Physician, 37(3), 37–38. 

Heston, Thomas F. (2023). Self-Assessment in Family Practice: Hypothyroidism Review Questions. Hospital Physician, 37(9), 31–32. 


Heston, Thomas F. (2000). Primary Care Radiology. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 13(6), 473.


Heston, Thomas F. (1999). Self-Assessment in Family Practice: Medical Imaging Review Questions. Hospital Physician, 35(9), 37–38. 

Heston, Thomas F. (1999). Self-Assessment in Family Practice: Prevention and Diagnosis of Osteoporosis Review Questions. Hospital Physician, 35(12), 37–38. 


Heston, Thomas F, Norman, Douglas J, Barry, John M, Bennett, William M, & Wilson, Richard A. (1997). Cardiac Risk Stratification in Renal Transplantation Using a Form of Artificial Intelligence. American Journal of Cardiology. 1997;79:415–417.

Heston TF, Lawrence LM. (1997). Gender bias in acute myocardial infarction. The American journal of cardiology, 79(6), 844. 


Heston, T. F. (1996). Do Premedical Students Fear Being Sued. Western Journal of Medicine, 165(6), 398. 


Heston TF, Lewis LM. (1993). Myocardial Infarction. Journal of Family Practice. 1993;37(1):13–14.

Heston TF. (1993). Smoking cessation strategies: a meta-analysis. Southern Medical Journal. 1993;86(Suppl):S36. doi: 


Heston TF, Lewis LM. (1992). Gender Bias in the Evaluation and Management of Acute Nontraumatic Chest Pain. Family Practice Research Journal. 1992;12(4):383–389.

Heston TF, Mattfeldt-Beman M, Cohen JD. (1992). Predictors of weight loss in a hypertension prevention program. Southern Medical Journal 1992;85(supplement):3S-31. 


Heston TF. (1991). An Excess of Information. Southern Medical Journal. 1991;84(8):1063.

Heston TF, Simkin P. (1991). Carbohydrate Loading in Preparation for Childbirth. Medical Hypotheses. 1991;34:97-98.

Lewis, Lawrence M., Heston, Thomas F., Mecker, R, Lasater, L, & Rush, C. (1991). Do emergency physicians follow the American College of Emergency Physicians' policy regarding the evaluation of nontraumatic chest pain in the ED? Southern Medical Journal. 1991;84(9):2S-23.

Heston TF, Lewis LM (1991). Gender-specific differences in the evaluation and management of acute chest pain. South Med J 1991;84(supp):23.

Simkin PA, Heston TF, Downey DJ, Benedict RS, Choi HS. Subchondral architecture in bones of the canine shoulder. J Anat. 1991 Apr;175:213-27. PMID: 2050567; PMCID: PMC1224481. 


Lewis, Lawrence M., Heston, Thomas F., & Rush, Carol. (1990). A comparison of care rendered by ED physicians with varying medical backgrounds. Southern Medical Journal. 1990;83(9):2S-19.


Heston, Thomas F. (1989). The ochlocratic trap. MSLaneous 1989;16(6):18.


Heston T: Deeper policy questions remain about N Reactor [Letter]. The Seattle Times 1987 Jan 5:A9(col 2).


Heston TF. (1985). We thank you Lord. Zenodo.